Inclusive practice in the lecture
Lowri Edwards Lecturer
College of Engineering
Kayleigh Rose and Almudena Ortiz-Urquiza
‘In an inclusive lecture, instructors and students work together to create and sustain an environment in which everyone feels safe, supported, and encouraged to express their views and concerns (University of Michigan 2011)’. Ultimately, the inclusiveness of a lecture depends upon the interactions that take place between the lecturer and the students. Multiple factors influence these interactions that relate to the lecturer’s knowledge, awareness and the way they create, plan and deliver lectures. We provide a checklist for lecturers to consider for ensuring inclusive practice in the lecture in the form of two case studies. The first case study is related to the importance of culturally diverse lecture content and the second is related to colour vision deficiencies.
Case study 1: Culturally responsive practices are specific educational practices, instructional strategies, team processes, and curricula content which have been established by research to increase the achievement of culturally diverse students (Thomas & May, 2010). Six guidelines for becoming a culturally responsive educator emerged from the research, namely, i) explain cultural references and using accessible language, illustrating points with examples that reflect the diverse students; ii) engage in a discussion with students at the start of the year about expectations of the role of the tutor and learner; iii) provide more explicit guidance on autonomous learning to aid the transition from school to university; iv) set up a peer mentoring scheme to assist with transition for all students; v) develop positive relationships with students; and, vi) utilise culturally connected instructional strategies such as call and response (Foster, 2002), cooperative learning (Gillies & Boyle, 2010), differentiated instruction (Tomlinson, 2014) and cognitive guided instruction.
Case study 2: The retina registers light intensity using two kinds of photoreceptors, rods and cones. While cones allow for vision in different light conditions, cones are responsible for colour perception. Most of humans are trichromats and can discern between reds, greens and blues. However, some individuals’ colour vision relies only on two classes of cones (dichromats) (Gerl and Morris, 2008). Abnormal trichromatic vision ranges from almost normal colour perception (deutera-, prota-, or tritanomaly) to inability to see a particular colour (deutera-, prota-, or tritanopia) or not be able to perceive colours at all (achromatopsia). Colour vision deficiency (CVD) is more abundant in European Caucasian males (8%), with less incidence in Asian (5%), Africans (4%) and indigenous Americans, Australians and Polynesians (less than 2%). The prevalence of CVD in women is around 0.5% (Birch, 2012). The most common CVD is deuteranomaly (difficulty to see greens). To be inclysive of colour vision deficiencies, lectures should: use unambiguous colours, use patterns, symbols, textures to highlight details in figures, use less colours and more symbols, talk the student through the figure, increase the image brightness and contrast, invest in a green pointer, use CVD simulators. Equally, lectures should not use red and green figures, pastel colours, rainbow pallets, put blue and violet together and use a red pen to mark.
The session outline will include a poster presentation of the work we completed whilst undertaking the Inclusivity patch of the PGCert. We will display our poster and talk to delegates about our findings.
Inclusive practice, culturally diverse, colour vision deficiency.
Checklist of key considerations while implementing inclusive practice in the lecture.